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Transmissible tumor and epidemic evolution: how to train tumor cell to be nicer

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Posted at 2014-2-28 01:01:11 | All floors |Read mode
transmissible tumor, the tumor cells transmitting from oneanimal to another, provides an exceptional clue for understanding the lethalitydifference between malignancy tumor and common pathogens, and possible methodsfor deal with normal tumors.

Two types of transmissible tumors are well studied now: 1. canine transmissiblevenereal tumor (CTVT), which is non-lethal and has been evolved for ~10k yearsas the 'oldest dog"; It's genome just came out in Science to show itoriginated from inter-breeding of small group of ancient dogs. (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6169/437);  2. Tasmanian Devil facial tumor,which appears just about a decade, and is highly lethal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil_facial_tumour_disease).

Cancer cells and pathogens, like flu virus, are basically similar in that bothdivide limitlessly and underto mutation-evolution to gain drug resistance.Nevertheless, cancer is more virulent on most of the pathogens. Two factorsmight account for this difference: 1. In the level of within-body evolution ofpathogen/tumor, the immune system can easily recognize and eliminate exogenouspathogen but not the “used-tobe-self” cancer cells; 2. In the level ofbetween-host evolution, well-evolved pathogens know to behave “nicely” in controllingtheir virulence in order not to wipe out all its hosts and die out.
Transmissible tumor, however, stands in both ways; on onehand, it originate from “selfish” cancer cells that already escaped from someimmune systems; on the other hand, they are under selection pressure tooptimize the trade-off between virulence and transmission.
Therefore, investigating the emergency and evolution oftransmissible tumor provides an exceptional chance to understand the roleplayed by insufficient immune response and lacking trade-off in cancer’slethality.
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Posted at 2014-2-28 14:24:36 | All floors
Three questions come up in my mind:
1. How to define "tumor" or "cancer", which distinguish them from other somatic cells.
2. How do the CTVT behave and transmit among the hosts.
3. Can we see CTVT as benign tumor that are transmissible? any common is shared between them?

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 Author| Posted at 2014-3-2 19:47:30 | All floors
faychoi Posted at 2014-2-28 14:24
Three questions come up in my mind:
1. How to define "tumor" or "cancer", which distinguish them fro ...

Answers:
1. nice question and I think no one knows the exact answer. I guess the defintion should be: some cells that used to be somatic cell now proliferate limitlessly on host and cause trouble
2. the dog one transmit by intercourse; the deveil one transmit by bit
3. CTVT does not kill the dog, yet, the original form do.

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Posted at 2014-3-6 22:25:32 | All floors
Last edited by zhiyuanli In 2014-3-6 22:28 Editor

do all  transmissible dog tumors have same origin?

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Posted at 2014-3-9 09:21:44 | All floors
testuser Posted at 2014-3-6 22:25
do all  transmissible dog tumors have same origin?

Two CTVT tumors (come from different dog species in different location) were analyzed by FISH, revealed that massive karyotypic rearrangement were highly consistent between the two CTVT genome. Article: Transmissible dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of an ancient cell lineage.

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Posted at 2014-8-8 15:30:13 | All floors
zhiyuanli Posted at 2014-3-2 19:47
Answers:
1. nice question and I think no one knows the exact answer. I guess the defintion should  ...

Ohh. Got it and Thanks

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Posted at 2014-9-6 21:08:37 | All floors
There's this new movie called The Fault in Our Stars. A great movie to watch for people who suffer from a cancer. Very inspirational and very lovely to watch.
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